USAID

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USAID

In a February 2009 report produced by USAID, a U.S. government agency, researchers found that circumcised men were more likely to have HIV in 10 of 18 (African) countries with data available.[1] The report found condom use, not circumcision, to be correlated with HIV status. Despite this report, USAID is listed as a contributing partner and a sponsor for the "Clearinghouse on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention."[2][3]

Contents

Circumcision Scale-Up

USAID has studied the "scale-up" of circumcision in Africa and shows support for circumcision in numerous places on its website.[4][5][6][7]

Accelerated Saturation Initiative

In November 2010, USAID issued a "technical brief" on male circumcision as HIV prevention. In the report, USAID states that it is supporting Swaziland's "Accelerated Saturation Initiative" for circumcision by providing "implementation support together with the [U.S.] Department of Defense, the Peace Corps, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)." The report goes on to say that USAID, along with UNAIDS, is providing technical and financial assistance in the studying circumcision programs in 14 African countries.[8]

Voluntary Male Medical Circumcision

USAID's support of what they call the "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program: VMMC" also focused on Kenya.[9] USAID funded a VMMC based circumcision campaign propaganda video to air on television in South Africa.[10]

No Clear Pattern of Association

Levels and Spread of HIV Seroprevalence and Associated Factors: Evidence from National Household Surveys

There appears no clear pattern of association between male circumcision and HIV prevalence—in 8 of 18 countries with data, HIV prevalence is lower among circumcised men, while in the remaining 10 countries it is higher.

--Levels and Spread of HIV Seroprevalence and Associated Factors: Evidence from National Household Surveys (February 2009)




C-Change

A USAID-funded organization called "C-Change" in Kenya is supporting "Male Circumcision Communication Toolkits" with the stated goal of "Creating demand for VMMC (circumcision)" and "facilitating a scale-up of materials" and capacity to perform more circumcisions from the government of Kenya. One of the ways C-Change is creating demand is by spreading information stating that "VMMC" prevents STI's.[11][12][13]

One issue of C-Change's publication included a study measuring media coverage of circumcision as HIV prevention and strategies for keeping media reports positive.[14]

PEPFAR

In September 2010, USAID, funded by the U.S. PEPFAR program, along with a partner, also donated 5,000 male circumcision kits to Zimbabwe.[15]

References

  1. "Levels and spread of HIV seroprevalence and associated factors: Evidence from national household surveys", DHS Comparative Reports 22, Macro International, Inc., 2009, http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/CR22/CR22.pdf, retrieved 2011-03-24 
  2. "Male Circumcision Clearinghouse: Partners and Contributors". Clearinghouse for Male Circumcision on HIV Prevention. http://www.malecircumcision.org/about/male_circumcision_partners.html. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  3. "Progress Report on Kenya's Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programme", National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Government of Kenya, July 2010, http://www.malecircumcision.org/documents/VMMCP_Report.pdf, retrieved 2011-03-24 
  4. "Research: Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention". USAID. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/TechAreas/research/mcfactsheet.html. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  5. "Male Circumcision". USAID. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/TechAreas/prevention/malecircumcision.html. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  6. "Male Circumcision: Current Epidemiological and Field Evidence", Program and Policy Implications for HIV Prevention and Reproductive Health, Washington, D.C.: USAID/AIDSMark, May 2003, http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACS892.pdf, retrieved 2011-03-24 
  7. "Fighting HIV with Circumcision". USAID. http://blog.usaid.gov/2010/12/fighting-hiv-with-circumcision/. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  8. "Medical Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention", Technical Issue Brief, USAID, November 2010, http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/TechAreas/prevention/medical_male_circumcision.pdf, retrieved 2011-03-25 
  9. "Kenya / HIV/AIDS". USAID. http://kenya.usaid.gov/programs/health/77. Retrieved 2011-03-25. "USAID/Kenya’s HIV/AIDS program is supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). PEPFAR, a five-year, $48 billion program, is led by the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, in conjunction with USAID, the Department of Health and Human Services (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Defense (DOD), the U.S. Peace Corps, and the Department of State." 
  10. "VMMC Soccer Videos from Kenya". VMMC.m4v. YouTube. December 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R8baq-d-Y5Q. Retrieved 2011-04-28.  Short video vignettes with a soccer theme that was field tested in communal video houses in Nyanza, Kenya during the 2010 World Cup Soccer broadcasts.
  11. "Kenya". C-Change. http://c-changeprogram.org/where-we-work/kenya. Retrieved 2011-03-25. "...[Male Circumcision] reduces risk for men..." 
  12. "C-Change Develops Male Circumcision Toolkit for Kenya". http://c-changeprogram.org/news/c-change-develops-male-circumcision-toolkit-kenya. Retrieved 2011-03-25. "...[Male Circumcision] reduces risk for men..." 
  13. "Male Circumcision". C-Change. 2010-10-01. http://c-changeprogram.org/category/topics/male-circumcision. Retrieved 2011-03-25. "VMMC Communication Toolkit in Kenya" 
  14. Wang, AL a; Duke W b; Schmid GP b (2009-12). "C-Channel Issue 15". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. C-Change. http://c-changeprogram.org/c-channel/issue15#5. Retrieved 2011-03-25. "Print media reporting of male circumcision for preventing HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa" 
  15. Correspondent, Own (2010-09-12). "US donates 5 000 male circumcision medical kits". The Standard. http://www.thestandard.co.zw/local/26435-us-donates-5-000-male-circumcision-medical-kits.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
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